). The waggle durations measured under these 3 situations are shown in

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These estimates of equivalent outside flight distances are obtained from calibrations in the honeybee's odometer as get MG-132 described in [16].4. The imply waggle duration recorded with title= 2152-7806.162550 axial polarization (216.4 + 1.9 (s.e.) ms; 11 bees, 11 dances, one hundred waggles) will not be considerably diverse from that recorded with transverse polarization (234.4 + eight.three (s.e.) ms; 17 bees, 17 dances, 102 waggles) (t-test, p ?0.07). The typical of those two durations is 227.three + six.4 ms. The waggle durations recorded in each and every of these situations are very related to these recorded for flights beneath the open sky in Experiment 1. These durations, recorded on 13 March 2008, are: 191.9 + 20 (s.e.) ms (9.15 ?.30), 229.5 + 7.1 (s.e.) ms (ten.47?1.10) and 236.9 + 17.3 (s.e.) ms (11.ten?1.20). In the results of figure six, it can be clear that a bee having flown through the tunnel together with the e-vector illumination transverse inside the 1st half in the tunnel and axial inside the second half signals a direction of around 458, which can be in among these two directions. This suggests that by illuminating a straight tunnel with two successive, mutually perpendicular e-vector directions we are able to simulate a flight by means of an L-shaped tunnel consisting of two perpendicularly oriented legs, each and every leg being half the total length. When bees fly within a simulated L-shaped tunnel, do they indicate a measure of your total distance flown (d ), or the `shortcut' p (vector) distance (d/ two) to the food source as illustrated in figure 8c? If they indicated the total distance, we would count on the waggle duration to be roughly 227 ms; if they indicated the vector distance, we would anticipate the p waggle duration to become inside the vicinity of (227/ two) ?160 ms. The measured mean waggle duration within the simulated L-shaped tunnel is 240.three + 7.9 (s.e.) ms (12 bees, 12 dances, 94 waggles; figure 8d), which can be substantially greater than 160 ms (t-test, p , 0.01), but close towards the durations measured inside the `straight' tunnels (1 element ANOVA, p ?0.18). Hence, within the simulated L-shaped tunnel the bees signal the total distance flown, in lieu of the vector distance corresponding to the imaginary shortcut. The flight distances that these waggle durations would represent in outdoor flight are approximately 300 m for the distance to the meals supply inside the straight tunnel and around 210 m for the vector distance for the meals source title= journal.pone.0054688 in the L-shaped tunnel. These estimates of equivalent outdoor flight distances are obtained from calibrations of the honeybee's odometer as described in [16].four. DiscussionThe capability to use polarized light for navigation or orientation has been demonstrated clearly and unequivocally in walking animals for example the desert ant [21], the desert wood louse [22] and also the dung beetle [23,24]. This has been achieved by showing that the direction of locomotion of a homing desert ant, or of a dung beetle departing with its treasure, is usually systematically altered by changing the direction on the e-vector of your overhead illumination.